A: Pius VII (r. 1800-1823)
The Concordat restored some of the rights and privileges of the Church that had been wrongfully usurped in the anticlericalism of the Revolution. Napoleon recognized the Papal States, returned to His Holiness the authority of investing bishops (although these were still nominated by the state), and ceased the revolutionary persecutions against the clergy. The Concordat, however, proved to be largely a practical device of Napoleon's, and the remainder of his reign was marked by less than adequate adherance to it (including the subsequent abolition of the Papal States).
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